Old Engli.sh

The Portal to the Language of the Anglo-Saxons

The Old-Engli.sh Link Directory

Welcome to the largest collection of OE links on the web!

Find here many useful links on OE grammar, news, translations, manuscripts and many other topics. All links are categorized and checked regularly. At the moment, there are 33 entries in this directory.

Old English Language Study

   Language Courses

Old English at the University of Calgary
The University of Calgary courses in Old English language and literature constructed by Murray McGillivray are free for everyone, offer simple and more complex, fully glossed prose and poetry text excerpts, background reading, grammar exercises and much more.

Peter Baker's Electronic Introduction to Old English (3rd edition)
Clearly one of the best introductions to the Old English on the web. It offers an extensive compilation of tools to getting to know the language. Nearly everything it contains is available to all, free of charge. There is an overview page for paradigms and grammatical explanations, an exercise page (Old English aerobics), and a page with text excerpts including audio files (Old English Anthology).
http://www.wmich.edu/medieval/resources/IOE/index.html (table of contents)
http://faculty.virginia.edu/OldEnglish/exercises/index.html (exercises)
http://www.oldenglishaerobics.net (Old English aerobics)

The Old English Companions Correspondence Course
A paid introduction to Old English created by the Old English Companions website. The first lesson can be accessed for free. The course comprises a series of eight lessons with exercises, grammar and vocabulary material. There are also pocket-sized drillbooks and an audio CD.

   Study aids

Online Old English Paradigms Project
The Online Old English Paradigm Project (OOEPP) offers great resources for studying OE paradigms. The online quizzes practise inflectional endings, vowel mutations, paradigms and more for nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs. Chose from two different modes for each quiz section. A great tool for all students of the Anglo-Saxon language.


Pragmatic Reasons to study Old English
Short article on Prof. Dr. Nokes's blog on why we should care to study Old English.

TOEBI: Teachers of Old English in Britain and Ireland
The professional organisation of Teachers of Old English in Britain and Ireland (TOEBI) aims to support the teaching of Old English in British and Irish Universities and to promote the public image of Old English. The organisation offers a yearly newsletter, conferences and study resources.

Richard Rawlinson Center
The Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies and Manuscript Research at Western Michigan University fosters teaching and research on Anglo-Saxon England in particular and on the field of manuscript studies in general. It hosts the International Congress on Medieval Studies as well as other events and is involved in a wide range of research activities.

Wikipedia in Old English
Wikipedia in Old English: Read articles about historical events, news or technology in Old English.

Old English News

Old English Newsletter
The online version of the University of Tennessee Old English Newsletter is a great source for news, announcements, and information on the world of Anglo-Saxon studies. It also provides a bibilographical database and a comprehensive link section.

Old English Texts

   Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - by Tony Jebson
This electronic edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle includes the Old English texts of all the main surviving manuscripts and very useful, detailed descriptions.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Modern English Translation
An electronic edition of the Ango-Saxon Chronicle edited, proofed and translated into Modern English by Douglas B. Killings. The text of the edition is based on "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", Everyman Press, London, 1912.


Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader
An Anglo-Saxon reader in prose and verse by Henry Sweet (1845-1912) is one of the most widely used Old English anthologies in the world. In includes a selection of valuable prose and poetry in West-Saxon and other dialects.


Apollonius of Tyre - Thorpe's Edition
This page offers the complete Old English text and a modern English translation of 'Apollonius of Tyre' as edited by Benjamin Thorpe (1834).


BeowulfTranslations.net is a comparative library presenting excerpts from over 100 English language translations of the epic poem Beowulf. It also contains a ton of information on the Beowulf manuscript, audio files, a huge bibliography and much more.

Beowulf in Hypertext
Beowulf in Hypertext presents the epic poem Beowulf in Old and Modern English, a search function, quizzes, links and much related material.

The Electronic Beowulf
The Electronic Beowulf is the manual to the state-of-the-art study guide Electronic Beowulf 3.0 DVD. It offers some free information on the Beowulf manuscripts, links and more.
http://ebeowulf.uky.edu/ (the Electronic Beowulf manual)
http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/E/bo8922014.html (page for DVD purchase)

Beowulf - Online Corpus of Old English Poetry
A fully glossed and annotated online version of Beowulf. The glossary opens in a separate frame. Ideal for everybody wishing to work with and translate Beowulf.

   West-Saxon Gospels

Anglo-Saxon versions of the Bible
Some articles, a small bibliography, and further links about the Anglo-Saxon versions of the bible.

The Anglo-Saxon Bible
Michael van der Hoek's page provides free digital editions of the Old English bible and other Christian texts. In addition, there are modern translations of missing parts into the Old English vernacular as well as a small link section.

Old English Dictionaries

Dictionary of Old English (DOE)
The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) defines the vocabulary of the first six centuries (600-1150 A.D.) of the English language, using twenty-first century technology. It has published letters A-G and offers various paid and free services, such as the "word of the week" or the "variant phrase search".
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/index.html (homepage)
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/pages/wofw.html (word of the week)
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/pages/pub/web-corpus.html (webcorpus, paid)
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/pages/tools/varphrase.html (variant phrase searches)

Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary
The digital edition of the bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary offers an easy-to-use search function for Old English to Moder English word translations. You can also download the dictionary directly to your PC.
http://bosworth.ff.cuni.cz/ (homepage)
http://lexicon.ff.cuni.cz/app/downloads.htm (download page)

Gerhard Köbler's Altenglisches Wörterbuch
A comprehensive Old English to Modern German dictionary, now in its third edition. It includes reconstructed but unattested Old English words, references to scholarly articles, Proto-Indo-European reconstructions, Latin bases for Old English glosses and more.

Clark Hall's A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary
John R. Clark Hall's classic A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1916) online. Each page of the original is available as HTML, PNG, and TIFF files.

The Old English Aerobics Glossary
The Old English Aerobics glossary is a very convenient tool that allows searches for about 4,600 high frequency words by headword, attested form, or definition. Furthermore, it is also possible to perform advanced searches on the glossary like partial words or letters in a particular positions.

Thesaurus of Old English (TOE)
TOE Online is an electronic version of the second edition of A Thesaurus of Old English, first published by King’s College London in 1995. Old and Modern English words can be searched for in five different modes.

Dictionary of Old English Plant Names
The Dictionary of Old English Plant Names is a complete documentation and interpretation of the extensive botanical vocabulary of Old English.

Old English Corpora

Dictionary of Old English corpus (DOE corpus)
The Dictionary of Old English corpus offers the most comprehensive electronic corpus of Old English texts in the world. Individuals can now purchase a license for online or CD searches. Some services are offered for free, such as variant phrase searches or a complete list of all text editions used for the compilation of the corpus.
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/pages/pub/web-corpus.html (homepage of webcorpus, paid)
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/pages/tools/varphrase.html (variant phrase searches)
http://tir.doe.utoronto.ca/st/index.html (list of all texts)

Early English Laws
The Early English Laws project collects, re-edits, critiques and translates all English legal codes, edicts and treatises produced up to the time of Magna Carta 1215.

The Electronic Sawyer
The Electronic Sawyer presents in searchable and browsable form a revised, updated, and expanded version of Peter Sawyer's Anglo-Saxon Charters: an Annotated List and Bibliography (1968).

Old English Literature


The Cambridge History of English and American Literature
The online version of the Cambridge companion to English literature contains detailed and insightful descriptions of Old English texts. There are chapters on various aspects of early English literature, including poetry, runes, manuscripts, Latin writing in England, early and late Old English, Middle English and comprehensive bibliographies for the respective chapters.

Old English Projects

Nerthus - an online lexical database of Old English
Nerthus is a lexical database of Old English constructed by the University of La Rioja. It includes a word list of about 30,000 lemmata and connections between words that share a common morphological base.
http://www.nerthusproject.com (Project homepage)
http://www.nerthusproject.com:8080/nerthus (Database)

Survey of Anglo-Saxon Plant Names
The Survey of Anglo-Saxon Plant Names (ASPNS) is a research project at the Institute for the Historical Study of Language (IHSL), based in the Department of English Language, University of Glasgow, U.K. The aim of the Survey is to study the plant-names of Anglo-Saxon England, in whatever medium they survive (e.g. manuscripts, inscriptions etc.), and from whatever language they originate. ASPNS offers news, an annual progress report, a Latin Plant-Name Associations Database and an exhaustive bibliography.

Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE) is a database which aims to provide structured information relating to all the recorded inhabitants of England from the late sixth to the late eleventh century. It is based on a systematic examination of the available written sources for the period, including chronicles, saints’ Lives, charters, libri vitae, inscriptions, Domesday Book and coins. The database can be searched for texts, persons, events, locationans and much more.

Find here a collection of free, downloadable Old English text editions and translations, including Apollonius of Tyre. Ælfric's Catholic Homilies, Biblical Translations, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and many other texts. Continue...